Extra-regional migration: In recent years, there has been an increase in migration flows from the Caribbean, Asian and African countries towards South America. There has been an Increase in numbers of extra-regional migrants, with notable flows from the Caribbean, Asia and Africa. These migrants are more vulnerable compared to regional migrants due to challenges with accessing regular migration status (and subsequently protected work), along with language and cultural barriers, among others. South America is a transit region (United States of America being as final destination) and also a final destination region. Intra-regional migration: Migration dynamics in South America have traditionally been marked by intra- and extra-regional patterns. In recent years, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has seen changes in its migration dynamics, with a decrease in immigration and increased emigration to other countries within the region and the world. Since the 1980s, there has been an increase in the emigration of Venezuelans to developed countries. In recent years, flows to
traditional destinations have intensified as well as towards new destinations in the region and the world. Extra-continental migration: In the first decade of the twenty-first century, there was a significant increase in migration from Africa and Asia. Such phenomenon is noted in a context of increasingly restrictive policies in traditional destination countries, along with visa liberalization in some South American nations. Some of these migrants have settled permanently in the region, as it is demonstrated by the number of residence permits issued. However, part of them, travelling either by air or sea, use various countries in South and Central America
as transit points, in their journey towards a final destination in the United States of America and Canada.